This academic article by Martha Brabowski and Karlene H. Roberts highlights the problems with risk mitigation in virtual organisations (referenced in the piece as “VO”), how virtual organisations can combat these risks, and what management can do in order to facilitate the mitigation of those risks. As the paper explains, risk mitigation isn't just about identifying the risks, but also communicating those risks in a potentially geographically disperse organisation: Risk mitigation is also dependent on effective communication processes at organizational interfaces, where the VO and its members are defined to each other and to the outside world. Such communications transmit the organization's culture, and are particularly important when organizations are distributed across geographical areas. In traditional organizations, the focus of communication is on effective talk among individuals within an organization. In distributed, linked organizations, the focus shifts to communications across system interfaces. This is underscored in distributed systems with risk mitigation mandates. A suggestion championed by Grabowski and Roberts is to appoint a “structual fluidity” czar who assesses and modifies communication channels in order to make sure it's as effective as possible. This also means keeping the culture of the organization alive and well in a virtual space.